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Archaeological & Geological History

seru-grandi
Seru Grandi

Bonaire has a diverse archaeological and geological history ranging from Amerindian caves, Spanish shipwrecks, lasting evidence of ancient tsunamis and hurricanes, and fascinating basaltic (volcanic) bedrock and limestone terraces.

 

2014_Engel et al_Holocene sea levels of Bonaire (Leeward Antilles) and tectonic implications
Keywords: Local relative sea level, Bonaire, Southern Caribbean, Mangrove peat, Holocene stratigraphy, Vibracoring

2013_Giry et al_Control of Caribbean surface hydrology during the mid- to late Holocene: insights from monthly resolved coral records
Keywords: Holocene, sea surface hydrology, hydrological cycles, oxygen isotope composition, climatology

2013_Engel et al_Holocene tsunamis in the southern Caribbean: Evidence from stratigraphic archives and the coarse-clast record
Keywords: Palaeotsunami, Bonaire, Tsunami vs. Storm deposit, Hazard assessment

2013_Urbani et al_Petrography of Exostic Clasts in the Soebi Blanco Formation, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Conglomerate, Foreign pebbles, Paleocene, Eocene

2012_Engel et al_ A prehistoric tsunami induced long-lasting ecosystem changes on a semi-arid tropical island—the case of Boka Bartol (Bonaire, Leeward Antilles)
Keywords: Palaeotsunamis, Caribbean Sea, Tsunami vs. storm deposits, Coastal evolution, Hazard assessment, Foraminifera, Ostracoda

2012_Engel_The chronology of prehistoric high-energy wave events (tropical cyclones, tsunamis) in the southern Caribbean and their impact on coastal geo-ecosystems – a case study from Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)
Keywords: Tropical cyclone, tsunami, geology, prehistoric

2012_Engel et al_Shoreline changes and high-energy wave impacts at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Keywords: Washover deposits, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, tsunamis, Holocene, stratigraphy, coastal hazards, environmental change, Caribbean

2009_Spiske and Jaffe_ Sedimentology and hydrodynamic implications of a coarse-grained hurricane sequence in a carbonate reef setting
Keywords: Hurricane Lenny, Sedimentology, Hurricane deposit, Hydrodynamics

2008_Sheffers et al_Tsunamis, hurricanes, the demise of coral reefs and shifts in prehistoric human populations in the Caribbean
Keywords: Natural disasters, coral reefs, tsumani, storm deposits, hurricanes, prehistoric Amerindian populations

2008_Spiske et al_The role of porosity in discriminating between tsunami and hurricane emplacement of boulders — A case study from the Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean
Keywords: boulder deposits, tsunami, hurricane, wave heights, porosity, bulk density

2005_Freitas et al_Landscape Ecological Vegetation Map of the Island of Bonaire (Southern Caribbean)
Keywords: Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestial, climate, geology, soil types, saliñas, anthropogenic effects

2006_Haviser & Strecker_Rock Art of Latin America & the Caribbean: Zone 2. Caribbean Area and north-coastal South America
Keywords: prehistoric Amerindian populations, Ceramic age, Rock art

2006_Scheffers & Scheffers_Documentation of the Impact of Hurricane Ivan on the Coastline of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Keywords: Hurricane damage, tropical cyclone, Hurricane Ivan, corals, documentation, boulder transport, storm ridges, sediment movement, Holocene

2005_Freitas et al_Landscape Ecological Vegetation Map of the Island of Bonaire (Southern Caribbean)
Keywords: Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Soil types

1990_Haviser_Perforated Prehistoric Ornaments Of Curaçao And Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Ceramic beads, prehistoric Amerindian populations, Ceramic age

1933_Pijpers_Geology and Paleontology of Bonaire
Keywords: Geological formations, Paleontology, Techtonics, Hydrology, Eocene, Quaternary, Porphyritic quartz hornblende diorite

 

Bats & Caves

Caves by SHAPE
Cave on Bonaire

Bonaire is estimated to have approximately 400 caves (both wet and dry) on the island and Klein Bonaire. These caves provide important roosts for the nine species of bats found on Bonaire. Their diet varies species to species, and includes insects, fish, nectar, pollen and fruits. On Bonaire, Leptonycteris curasoae and Glossophaga longirostris are keystone columnar cacti pollinators.

 

2015_Simal et al_ Island–island and island–mainland movements of the Curaçaoan long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris curasoae
Keywords: Dutch Caribbean, Leptonycteris curasoa,e long-distance movements, mark and recapture, migration, Venezuela, STINAPA

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

2012_Larsen et al_Evolutionary history of Caribbean species of Myotis, with evidence of a third Lesser Antillean endemic
Keywords: Myotis dominicensis, Myotis martiniquensis, Myotis nesopolus, Myotis nyctor, AFLPs, Lesser Antilles

2012_eds. van Beukering and Wolfs_Student essays on economic values of nature or Bonaire: A desk study
Keywords: Value, Art, Research, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Carbon sequestration, Pollination by bats, Water quality, Amenities, Cultural value, Cruise ships

1995_Petit_The Pollinators of Two Species of Columnar Cacti on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Bats, Cacti, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba, Glossophaga, Leptonycteris, Pollinators, Stenocereus, Subpilocereu

Bird Monitoring & Research

Black-necked Stilt
Black-necked Stilt

Bonaire is home to a vast array of seabirds, shorebirds, wading and terrestrial birds. Some are migratory and come to the island seasonally, while others are resident species. Bonaire has five Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance and six Important Bird Areas.

 

2015_Rivera-Milán et al_Distance sampling survey and abundance estimation of the critically endangered Grenada Dove (Leptotila wellsi)
Keywords: Leptotila wellsi, deforestation, disturbance, management, Grenada, STINAPA

2015_Verweij et al_Indicators on the status and trends of ecosystems in the Dutch Caribbean: Indicators, monitoring and assessment methods and capacity estimates
Keywords: Caribbean Netherlands, monitoring, nature, biodiversity, ecosystems, species, treaties

2013_Geelhoed et al_Important Bird Areas in the Caribbean Netherlands
Keywords: IBA, Management, Birds, Coverage

2013_Slijkerman et al_Saliña Goto and reduced flamingo abundance since 2010: Ecological and ecotoxicological research
Keywords: Environmental toxicology, Petrochemical fire, Phoenicopterus ruber, PFCs, PAH, Ecological disturbance

2013_Debrot et al_Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac Bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011
Keywords: Subhabitats, Birds, Lac Bay, Mangroves, Saliña, Woodland, Evergreen , Deciduous

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

2012_Rivera-Milán & Simal_Distance Sampling Surveys of Yellow-shouldered Parrots (Amazona barbadensis rothschildi) on Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Yellow-shouldered Amazon, Lora, Distance Sampling, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2012_Rivera-Milán et al_Population Surveys of the Yellow-shouldered Parrot (Amazona barbadensis rothschildi) on Bonaire in March and October 2010−2012
Keywords: Yellow-shouldered Amazon, Lora, Population survey, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2012_Sekeris_The Yellow-shouldered Amazon
Keywords: Yellow-shouldered Amazon, Lora, PVA, Feral livestock, Poaching, Recovery

2010_Debrot et al_Lac Bonaire Restoration Action Spear Points
Keywords: IBA, RAMSAR, Restoration, Management

2010_Debrot et al_Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire – June 2010
Keywords: Water quality, Recreation, Human impacts, Seagrass, Mangroves, Coral reefs, Habitats, Marine, RAMSAR, Birds

2010_Rivera-Milán & Simal_Density and Abundance of Yellow-shouldered Parrots (Amazona barbadensis rothchildi) and Brown-throated Parakeets (Aratinga pertinax xanthogenius) on Bonaire, Netherland Antilles
Keywords: Yellow-shouldered Amazon, Lora, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2010_Simal & Rivera-Milán_A Manual for the Landbird Monitoring Program of STINAPA Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Landbirds, Manual, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2010_Simal et al_Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) Monitoring Program
Keywords: Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2009_Simal_Monitoring Program for Waterbirds Inhabiting the Saliñas of Northwest Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Bird monitoring, Saliñas, Bonaire, STINAPA

2009_Simal_Brown Booby Monitoring Program
Keywords: Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2008_Simal_Brown Booby Monitoring Program
Keywords: Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby, Bird monitoring, STINAPA

2008_Freitas_Rare plant species, establishment of exclosures and recommendations for a monitoring program in the Washington-Slagbaai Park (Bonaire)
Keywords: rare plants, goat grazing, feral livestock, exclosures, birds, habitat types

2008_Nijman_Conservation status of Caribbean coot Fulica caribaea in the Netherlands Antilles and other parts of the Caribbean
Keywords: Caribbean coot, Conservation status, Fulica americana, Hybridisation, Restricted-range species, Waterbirds

2003_Prins et al_First Specimen Record of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Barn owl, First record, Tyto alba

2002_Debrot et al_ Seabird Nesting on Curaçao and Bonaire, 2002
Keywords: Seabirds, Laughing gull, Royal tern, Cayenne Tern, Common Tern, Antillean tern, Conservation assessment

Coral Reefs & Adjacent Waters

Common-Octupus

Bonaire’s coral reefs have some of the highest coral cover in the Caribbean and host an amazing array of marine life. The adjacent waters are home to many species that visit the reefs, such as tuna, dolphins, and rays. Publications include comprehensive biennial reef monitoring, marine mammal and elasmobranch studies, tropical cyclone impact assessment and sea turtle research.

Status & Trends of Bonaire’s Reefs: 2003-Present

2015_Steneck et al_Status and Trends of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs in 2015 & Slow but Steady Signs of Resilience
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, Fish Protected Areas, STINAPA

2013_Steneck et al_Status and Trends of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs in 2013 & Causes for Optimism
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, STINAPA

2011_Steneck et al_Status and Trends of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs 2011 & Causes for Grave Concern
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, BLAGGRA, coral bleaching, scarids, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, STINAPA

2009_Steneck et al_Status and Trends of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs in 2009 & Need for Immediate Action
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, bleaching, macroalgae, ocean acidification, diver impact, economics, STINAPA

2007_Steneck et al_ A Report on the Status of the Coral Reefs of Bonaire in 2007 With Results from Monitoring 2003-2007
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, bleaching, macroalgae, traditional fishing, STINAPA

2005_Steneck et al_A Report on the Status of the Coral Reefs of Bonaire in 2005 with Advice on a Monitoring Program
Keywords: Monitoring, benthic composition, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, macroalgae, STINAPA

2003_Steneck et al_ A Report on the Status of the Coral Reefs of Bonaire with Advice on the Establishment of Fish Protected Areas
Keywords: Monitoring, fish populations, marine tourism, economics, benthic composition, herbivorous fish, coral recruitment, algae, STINAPA

Coral Reefs & Adjacent Waters

2015_Verweij et al_Indicators on the status and trends of ecosystems in the Dutch Caribbean: Indicators, monitoring and assessment methods and capacity estimates
Keywords: Caribbean Netherlands, monitoring, nature, biodiversity, ecosystems, species, treaties

2015_Newman_Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean
Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, degradation, relief, topography

2015_Meesters_Coral restoration Bonaire: an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival
Keywords: Acropora, reef restoration, genetics, side branch formation

2015_Claydon et al_Spatial and demographic consequences of nursery-dependence in reef fishes: an empirical and simulation study
Keywords: Connectivity, Nursery, Ontogeny, Dispersal, Herbivore, Coral reef, Parrotfish, Individual based model

2015_Lyons et al_The effect of recreational SCUBA divers on the structural complexity and benthic assemblage of a Caribbean coral reef
Keywords: Ecotourism, Bonaire, Physical disturbance, Structural complexity, Management

2015_Johnson & Jackson_Fisher and diver perceptions of coral reef degradation and implications for sustainable management
Keywords: Artisanal fishing, SCUBA diving, Coral reefs, Reef management, Resource degradation, Shifting baselines

2014_Loh & Pawlik_Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs
Keywords: chemical ecology, indirect effects, community structure, marine protected areas, trophic dynamics

2014_Soest et al_Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean
Keywords: Sponge fauna, new species, mesophotic, dysphotic, Caribbean Netherlands, Curasub, manned submersible

2014_Johnson & Saunders_Time preferences and the management of coral reef fisheries
Keywords: Time preferences, Discount factors, Discounting, Present bias, Fisheries management ,Artisanal fishing, SCUBA diving, Coral reefs

2014_Becking & Meesters_Bonaire Deep Reef Expedition I
Keywords: Biodiversity, New species, Lionfish, Caribbean Netherlands, Curasub, manned submersible

2013_Lewis et al_Redescription of Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Neotype, Carybdea alata, Carybdeida, cubomedusae, box jellyfish, Atlantic Ocean, aggregation, sexual reproduction, deep-sea, taxonomy

2012_Jackson et al_Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs:1970-2012
Keywords: Coral reef decline, Caribbean, resilience, fishing pressures, population density, coastal development, pollution, invasive species, climate change

2012_Bruckner et An Assessment of the Health and Resilience of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs
Keywords: Resilience, Reef structure, Biodiversity, Reef fish, Algae cover, Coral cover

2011_Muller et al_Day time spawning of a Caribbean coral
Keywords: Diploria labyrinthiformis, Bonaire, coral spawning, adaptive mechanisms, reproductive timing

2011_Edwards et al_How much time can herbivore protection buy for coral reefs under realistic regimes of hurricanes and coral bleaching?
Keywords: Climate change, coral bleaching, coral reef dynamics, global climate model, grazing, hurricanes

2011_Sommer et al_Coral community decline at Bonaire, Southern Caribbean
Keywords: Coral reef decline, sceractinia, macroalgae, hurricane damage

2011_IUCN_Coral Reef Resilience Assessment of the Bonaire National Marine Park, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Reef resilience, Bonaire, benthic cover, corals, ecological indicators, anthropogenic pressure, marine protected areas, water quality, fishing pressure, coastal development, STINAPA

2011_Debrot_A status report of nature policy development and implementation in the Dutch Caribbean over the last 10 years and recommendations towards the Nature Policy Plan 2012-2017
Keywords: nature management, policies, conservation issues, climate change, invasive species, marine pollution, feral livestock

2010_Pettengill-Semmens_The Reef Fish Assemblage of Bonaire Marine Park: An Analysis of REEF Fish Survey Data
Keywords: Bonaire, reef fish, volunteer monitoring

2010_Stokes et al_Long-term Declines in Coral Cover at Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords:

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

2010_Arnold et al_Running the gauntlet: inhibitory effects of algal turfs on the processes of coral recruitment
Keywords: Coral reef, Algal biomass, Herbivory, Parrotfish, Recruitment limitation, Caribbean, Demographic bottleneck, Bonaire

2008_Mumby & Steneck_Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly evolving ecological paradigms
Keywords: Coral reef management, Coral decline, Macroalgae, Feedback loops, Herbivores, Nutrients, Marine Reserves

2008_Sandin et al_Coral reef fish and benthic community structure of Bonaire and Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: reef fish, algae, coral, trophic structure

2007_Uyarra & Côte_Impacts of species-focused recreational diving on corals
Keywords: Coral reef management, Diving, Frogfish, Recreational damage, Seahorse

2007_Faber_Marine gastropods from the ABC islands and other localities 14. The family Terebridae with the description of a new species from Aruba (Gastropoda: Terebridae)
Keywords: Mollusca, Gastropoda, Terebra, Hastula, taxonomy, Caribbean, ABC Islands, Aruba

2005_Bak et al_Coral reef crisis in deep and shallow reefs- 30 Years of constancy and change in reefs of Curacao and Bonaire
Keywords: Deep coral reef, Global change, Bleaching, Coral reef temperature, Coral mortality, Long-term monitoring

2003_Choat et al_An age-based demographic analysis of the Caribbean stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride
Keywords: Age-based demographic properties, Growth, Maximum age, Scarids, Otoliths, Validation, Von Bertalanffy parameters, Geographical variation, Fishing effect

1997_Woodley et al_Status of Coral Reefs in the South Central Caribbean
Keywords: Anthropogenic impact, management, tourism, coastal communities, coral reefs

1995_Bak & Nieuwland_Long Term Change In Coral Communities Along Depth gradients Over Leeward Reefs In The Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Deep coral reef, Coral reef decline, Species richness

1985_van Duyl_Atlas of the Living Reefs of Curaçao and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Keywords: Mapping coral reefs, coral community organization, historical reference

1977_Bak_Coral Reefs and Their Zonation in the Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Coral composition, depth gradients, crustose coralline algae, hermatypic corals

Sea Turtles

Rudy017-hawksbill
Hawksbill Turtle

2016_Becking et al_Post-breeding migration routes of marine turtles from Bonaire and Klein Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands
Keywords: Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Eretmochelys imbricate, Migration, Foraging areas, Population connectivity, Satellite telemetry, STCB

2016_Bjorndal et al_Somatic growth dynamics of West Atlantic hawksbill sea turtles: a spatio-temporal perspective
Keywords: climate effects, coral reefs, Eretmochelys imbricate, Greater Caribbean, marine turtles, multivariate ENSO index, sea surface temperature, somatic growth rates,West Atlantic STCB

2014_Mil van_Fibropapillomatosis Affecting Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Research Report
Keywords: Chelonia mydas, Fibropapillomatosis, infection rate, STCB

2014_van Bussel_Invasive Seagrass-Mega-Herbivore Interactions: a study on the invasion of seagrass Halophila stipulacea in a Southern Caribbean lagoon affected by C. mydas grazing
Keywords: Halophila, Chelonia mydas, colonization rate, grazing, Lac Bay, STCB, STINAPA

2013_Doyle_An Inventory of the Geographical Distribution and Conservation Status of Marine Turtles and Sharks in the Wider Caribbean and Relationship to Fisheries
Keywords: Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Eretmochelys imbricate, Elasmobranchs, Threats, Fisheries impact

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

 

Sharks, Rays & Marine Mammals

Reef
Reef Shark

2014_van Beek et al_Shark protection plan for the Dutch Caribbean EEZ
Keywords: Elasmobranchs, distribution, abundance, genetics, threats, life history, protection plan, legal conventions, shark sanctuary

2013_Debrot et al_Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Elasmobranchs, Whale shark, Rhincodon typus, crab megalopae swarms, tuna schools, Dutch Caribbean, STINAPA

2012_Witte et al_First record of Fraser’s dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Marine mammals, Cetacea, Fraser’s dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei, stranding, distribution, Bonaire, Leeward Antilles, Crustacean

2013_Doyle_An Inventory of the Geographical Distribution and Conservation Status of Marine Turtles and Sharks in the Wider Caribbean and Relationship to Fisheries
Keywords: Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Eretmochelys imbricate, Elasmobranchs, Threats, Fisheries impact

 

Impact from Tropical Cyclones & Hurricanes

Click here to immediately go to the Introduced & Invasive Species folder where you can find more about the Lionfish Control Project.

damaged-staghorn-coral-acropora-cervicornis_sw-coast-in-shallows-10m
Damaged staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis sw-coast in shallows 10m

2016_Eckrich et al_Hurricane Matthew- Reef Damage Assessment
Keywords: Tropical cyclone, Hurricane Matthew, reef assessment, hurricane damage, corals, resilience, recovery, documentation

2012_Engel_The chronology of prehistoric high-energy wave events (tropical cyclones, tsunamis) in the southern Caribbean and their impact on coastal geo-ecosystems – a case study from Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)
Keywords: Tropical cyclone, tsunami, geology, prehistoric

2012_Engel et al_Shoreline changes and high-energy wave impacts at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Keywords: Washover deposits, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, tsunamis, Holocene, stratigraphy, coastal hazards, environmental change, Caribbean

2011_Sommer et al_Coral community decline at Bonaire, Southern Caribbean
Keywords: Coral reef decline, sceractinia, macroalgae, hurricane damage, tropical cyclone

2009_Spiske and Jaffe_ Sedimentology and hydrodynamic implications of a coarse-grained hurricane sequence in a carbonate reef setting
Keywords: Hurricane Lenny, Sedimentology, Hurricane deposit, Hydrodynamics

2008_de Leon_Tropical Storm Omar; Report on Reef Condition
Keywords: Tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Omar Matthew, reef assessment, damage, corals, documentation

2006_Scheffers & Scheffers_Documentation of the Impact of Hurricane Ivan on the Coastline of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Keywords: Hurricane damage, tropical cyclone, Hurricane Ivan, corals, documentation, boulder transport, storm ridges, sediment movement, Holocene

Dry Forests & Rocky Terraces

shape_mlc_20080216_029_bo_highres
Dry forest

Bonaire has tropical dry forests with a variety flora such as columnar cacti, orchids, and even evergreen Lignum vitae. These forests give way to open rocky terraces and some freshwater pools. The forests and terraces are home to a variety of fauna such as butterflies, birds and lizards.

 

2015_Verweij et al_Indicators on the status and trends of ecosystems in the Dutch Caribbean: Indicators, monitoring and assessment methods and capacity estimates
Keywords: Caribbean Netherlands, monitoring, nature, biodiversity, ecosystems, species, treaties

2014_Hagen et al_Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Divi-divi, Cryptococcus gattii; Multi-locus sequence typing; Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting; Environmental sampling; Caesalpinia coriaria

2014_Paulson et al_Odonata of Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with an update to the fauna of the ABC islands
Keywords: Odonata, dragonfly, Curaçao, biogeography, dispersal, seasonality

2013_Debrot et al_Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac Bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011
Keywords: Subhabitats, Birds, Lac Bay, Mangroves, Saliña, Woodland, Evergreen , Deciduous

2013_Freitas & Rojer_New plant records for Bonaire and the Dutch Caribbean islands
Keywords: Bonaire, deleterious effects, Dutch Caribbean, flora, introduced animals, new additions, rare plant species

2013_Freitas & Lannoy_Inventarisatie vegetatie Terrassen landschap Midden Bonaire, Caribisch Nederland (NED)
Keywords: vegetation map, ecology, flora, plants

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

2012_van Buurt and Debrot_Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Exotic species, Species, Terrestrial, Freshwater

2012_van der Berg et al_Naturalized and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands-status, distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations
Keywords: Invasive species, Exotic, Plants, Management, Human impacts, Terrestrial, Habitat types

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

2008_Freitas_Rare plant species, establishment of exclosures and recommendations for a monitoring program in the Washington-Slagbaai Park (Bonaire)
Keywords: rare plants, goat grazing, feral livestock, exclosures, birds, habitat types

2005_Freitas et al_Landscape Ecological Vegetation Map of the Island of Bonaire (Southern Caribbean)
Keywords: Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestial, climate, geology, soil types, saliñas, anthropogenic effects

2003_Miller et al_A Survey of Butterflies from Aruba and Bonaire and New Records for Curaçao
Keywords: Lepidoptera, diversity, island-island comparison, deforestation, habitat depletion, feral livestock

Ecosystem Services & Economics

Baitball-and-Ocean-Triggerfish

Bonaire is renowned for its natural that are valuable aesthetically, economically, and culturally. A variety of research has been done to evaluate the economic and societal benefits of these areas.

2015_van Beek_Structure and financing of nature management costs in Caribbean Netherlands
Keywords: park management, enforcement, conventions, budget, sustainable financing

2013_ van der Lely et al_The total economic value of nature on Bonaire: Exploring the future with an ecological-economic simulation model
Keywords: economic valuation, ecosystem services, terrestrial, marine, sewage treatment, conservation, restoration, Total Economic Value, stakeholder engagement

2013_TEEB Caribbean Netherlands_The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity on Bonaire: Recreational and cultural value of Bonaire’s nature
Keywords: Willingness-to-pay, choice modeling, residents, ecosystem threats, environmental management

2013_TEEB Caribbean Netherlands_The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity on Bonaire: Fishery value of coral reefs in Bonaire
Keywords: Choice modeling, market valuation, fisheries value map, commercial fishing, recreational fishing, net factor income approach

2013_TEEB Caribbean Netherlands_The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity on Bonaire: The value of citizens in the Netherlands for nature in the Caribbean
Keywords: Willingness-to-pay, nature conservation, island-mainland, nature value, environmental protection

2012_Shep et al_The tourism value of nature on Bonaire: Using choice modelling and value mapping
Keywords: Tourism, Choice experiment, Demographics, Expenditures, Activities

2012_Shep et al_The fishery value of coral reefs in Bonaire- Applying various valuation techniques
Keywords: Commercial fishing, Recreational fishing, Subsistence fishing. Consumer surplus, Ecosystem services

2012_Debrot et al_Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
Keywords: marine tourism, business operating, recreation, ecological impact, man-made litter, fishing, mangroves, seagrass

2012_van Beukering_The non-use value of nature in the Netherlands and the Caribbean Netherlands: Applying and comparing contingent valuation and choice modeling approaches
Keywords: choice experiment, contingent valuation, demographics, consumer confidence, user buy-in, willingness-to-pay

2012_eds. van Beukering and Wolfs_Student essays on economic values of nature or Bonaire: A desk study
Keywords: Value, Art, Research, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Carbon sequestration, Pollination by bats, Water quality, Amenities, Cultural value, Cruise ships

2012_Lacle et al_Recreational and cultural value of Bonaire’s nature to its Inhabitants – 1 of 2
Keywords: choice modeling, ecosystem services, feral livestock, fisheries, public beaches, terrestrial recreation, marine recreation, local use, tourism, Willingness-to-pay

2012_van Zanten and van Beukering_Coastal Protection Services or coral reefs in Bonaire: Economic values and spatial maps
Keywords: coastal protection value, value maps, ecosystem services, buffer, coast

2011_Wentink & Wulfsen_Recreational and land use survey for Lac Bay Bonaire
Keywords: management, marine tourism, demographics, cruise ship tourism, anthropogenic threats, Lac Bay catchment

2011_van Beek_Functional Valuation of Ecosystem Services on Bonaire: An ecological analysis of ecosystem functions provided by coral reefs
Keywords: tourism, ecosystem services, fisheries, provisioning, habitat services, coral reefs, cultural services, function

2010_Uyarra_Charging for Nature: Marine Park Fees and Management from a User Perspective
Keywords: Contingent valuation, Willingness-to-pay, Tourism, Marine protected areas, Bonaire, Caribbean

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

2009_Steneck et al_Status and Trends of Bonaire’s Coral Reefs in 2009 & Need for Immediate Action
Keywords: Reef resilience, herbivorous fish, Echinodermata, coral recruitment, algae, structural complexity, damselfish, predatory fish, Fish Protected Areas, bleaching, macroalgae, ocean acidification, diver impact, economics, STINAPA

2005_Uyarra et al_Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism-dependent states
Keywords: Caribbean, climate change, coral bleaching, environmental management, sea level rise, tourism

2003_Abel_Understanding Complex Human Ecosystems: The Case of Ecotourism on Bonaire
Keywords: sociocultural services, socioeconomic structure, production subsystems, energy memory

1993_Dixon et al_Ecology and Microeconomics as Joint Products- The Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean
Keywords: conservation, tourism, joint products, marine protected areas, dive tourism, ecological benefits, socio-economics, cost-benefits map

Introduced & Invasive Species

Lion Fish  the new curse of the reefs
Lion Fish: the new curse of the reefs

STINAPA, visiting scientists and the local government work to monitor and manage introduced and invasive flora and fauna, both in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Examples of STINAPA species management include the Lionfish Control Project, monitoring invasive seagrass in Lac Bay and fence exclosures to keep feral livestock (goats, pigs and donkeys) out of WSNP.

 

2012_Debrot_Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire
Keywords: fish nursery, benthos, invasive seagrass, habitat structure, mangrove

2012_van der Berg et al_Naturalized and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands-status, distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations
Keywords: Invasive species, Exotic, Plants, Management, Human impacts, Terrestrial, Habitat types

2012_van Buurt and Debrot_Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Exotic species, Species, Terrestrial, Freshwater

2011_Debrot_A status report of nature policy development and implementation in the Dutch Caribbean over the last 10 years and recommendations towards the Nature Policy Plan 2012-2017
Keywords: nature management, policies, conservation issues, climate change, invasive species, marine pollution, feral livestock

2011_Debrot et al_Preliminary overview of exotic and invasive marine species in the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: documented species, invasive marine species, exotic species, watch list, lionfish, seagrass, fibropapilloma, coral disease

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

 

Feral Livestock

2015_Geurts_The abundance of feral livestock in the Washington Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Keywords: population assessment, feral livestock, goats, pigs, donkeys, management, control, Opuntia, cactus, STINAPA

2015_Coolen_The impact of feral goat herbivory on the vegetation of Bonaire: An experimental study in the Washington-Slagbaai National
Keywords: feral livestock, impact assessment, STINAPA

2013_Freitas & Rojer_New plant records for Bonaire and the Dutch Caribbean islands
Keywords: Bonaire, deleterious effects, Dutch Caribbean, flora, introduced animals, new additions, rare plant species, feral livestock

2008_Freitas_Rare plant species, establishment of exclosures and recommendations for a monitoring program in the Washington-Slagbaai Park (Bonaire)
Keywords: rare plants, goat grazing, feral livestock, exclosures, birds, habitat types

2003_Miller et al_A Survey of Butterflies from Aruba and Bonaire and New Records for Curaçao
Keywords: Lepidoptera, diversity, island-island comparison, deforestation, habitat depletion, feral livestock

 

Invasive Seagrass

2016_Tussenbroek et al_Non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea forms dense mats under eutrophic conditions in the Caribbean
Keywords: Halophila, Nitrogen, Sediment, Thalassia

2014_van Bussel_Invasive Seagrass-Mega-Herbivore Interactions: a study on the invasion of seagrass Halophila stipulacea in a Southern Caribbean lagoon affected by C. mydas grazing
Keywords: Halophila, Chelonia mydas, colonization rate, grazing, Lac Bay, STCB, STINAPA

2014_Becking et al_Proximate response of fish, conch, and sea turtles to the presence of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Bonaire
Keywords: Halophila, Thalassia, Strombus gigas, Chelonia mydas, proximate response, grazing, seagrass beds, conch, fish assemblages, Chelonia mydas, STINAPA

2013_Eckrich and Engel_Coral overgrowth by an encrusting red alga (Ramicrusta sp.): a threat to Caribbean reefs?
Keywords: Alga, Bonaire, Competition, Encrusting macroalgae, Overgrowth, Peyssonnelia, Peyssonneliaceae, Ramicrusta, Resilience, Coral

2012_Debrot_Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire
Keywords: fish nursery, benthos, invasive seagrass, habitat structure, mangrove

2010_Eckrich et al_Crustose, calcareous algal bloom (Ramicrusta sp.) overgrowing scleractinian corals, gorgonians, a hydrocoral, sponges, and other algae in Lac Bay, Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Lac Bay, Competition, Encrusting macroalgae, Overgrowth, Peyssonnelia, Peyssonneliaceae, Ramicrusta, Resilience, Coral

 

 Lionfish Control Project

Lionfish Hunting in Marine Reserve Bonaire
Lionfish Hunting in Marine Reserve Bonaire

2016_Malpica-Cruz et al_Management of lionfish through public participation
Keywords: Coral reefs, Fishing tournaments, Invasive species management, Marine invasions, Lionfish

2016_Carballo-Cárdenasa & Tobi _Citizen science regarding invasive lionfish in Dutch Caribbean MPAs: Drivers and barriers to participation
Keywords: Citizen science, Invasive lionfish, Marine protected areas, Motivations, Participation

2013_de Leon et al_ Efficacy of the Lionfish Control Program
Keywords: Spearfishing, Eradication of lionfish, Pterois volitans, Invasive species, Curaçao, Bonaire

2011_Ali_Understanding the Lionfish Invasion in Bonaire to Develop the Best Strategy for Trinidad and Tobago
Keywords: Lionfish, invasive species, prevention, management, control, Bonaire, Trinidad and Tobago

2011_de Leon_Overfishing Works-A comparison on the Effectiveness of Lionfish Control Efforts Between Bonaire and Curaçao
Keywords: Lionfish, invasive species, prevention, management, control, STINAPA

2009_STINAPA_Communication Plan-Lionfish Invasion_ (ENG)
Keywords: management, communication plan, invasive species, lionfish, Pterois

2009_STINAPA_Communicatieplan invasie gewone koraalduivel (NED)
Keywords: koraalduivel, invasie gewone, communicatieplan, Pterois

 

Mangroves, Seagrasses & Bays

Lac-roots

Lac Bay has extensive mangroves and seagrass beds that are home to a variety of fish, conch, turtles and birds. Mangroves and seagrasses serve as a nursery for a variety of reef fish and help filter water, sediment, pollutants and detritus as it flows from land to the reef.

 

Click here to immediately go to the Introduced & Invasive Species folder where you can find more about Invasive Seagrass.

2015_Claydon et al_Spatial and demographic consequences of nursery-dependence in reef fishes: an empirical and simulation study
Keywords: Connectivity, Nursery, Ontogeny, Dispersal, Herbivore, Coral reef, Parrotfish, Individual based model

2015_Verweij et al_Indicators on the status and trends of ecosystems in the Dutch Caribbean: Indicators, monitoring and assessment methods and capacity estimates
Keywords: Caribbean Netherlands, monitoring, nature, biodiversity, ecosystems, species, treaties

2015_Hylekema et al_Fish Species Utilization of Contrasting sub-Habitats Distributed Along an Ocean-to-Land Environmental Gradient in a Tropical Mangrove and Seagrass Lagoon
Keywords: Caribbean, Tropical, Seagrass, Mangrove, Fish nursery, Mangrove expansion

2014_Govers et al_Eutrophication threatens Caribbean seagrasses – An example from Curaçao and Bonaire
Keywords: Nutrient, Thalassia testundinum, Bioindicator, Sewage discharge, Residential eutrophication, Point source

2014_Hobbelt_Fresh water and sediment dynamics in the catchment of Lac at Bonaire
Keywords: Fresh water, Catchment, Lac Bay, Mangroves

2013_Debrot et al_Marine debris in mangroves and on the seabed: Largely-neglected litter problems
Keywords: Marine debris, Lac Bay, Mangroves, STINAPA

2013_Debrot et al_Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac Bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011
Keywords: Subhabitats, Birds, Lac Bay, Mangroves, Saliña, Woodland, Evergreen, Deciduous

2012_Debrot_Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire
Keywords: fish nursery, benthos, invasive seagrass, habitat structure, mangrove

2012_Debrot et al_Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
Keywords: marine tourism, business operating, recreation, ecological impact, man-made litter, fishing, mangroves, seagrass

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

2012_Davaasuren and Meesters_Extent and health of mangroves in Lac Bay Bonaire using satellite data
Keywords: Mangroves, Lac Bay, Satellite imagery, Spectral analysis, Landscape ecology

2011_Slijkerman et al_Eutrophication status of Lac, Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean Including proposals for measures
Keywords: Coral reefs, Habitats, marine, Lac Bay, eutrophication

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

2010_Debrot et al_Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire – June 2010
Keywords: Water quality, Recreation, Human impacts, Seagrass, Mangroves, Coral reefs, Habitats, Marine, RAMSAR, Birds

 

Karko (Conch) Research

320737_304463619567800_505785147_n
Tagged Conch during Karko Project in 2011

2014_What if we change- Conch Restoration in Lac, Bonaire Final Report
Keywords: Conch restoration, Lac Bay, management, STINAPA

2013_Prent_Spatial and size distribution of Queen Conch (Lobatus gigas) veligers in relation with ocean surface currents in Lac Bay, Bonaire
Keywords: Veligers, Currents, Lobatus gigas, Lac Bay

2013_Willemse_Spatial distribution of juvenile Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) in Lac Bay, Bonaire
Keywords: Lobatus gigas, Lac Bay, distribution, juveniles, STINAPA

2012_Glazer_An Overview of Conch Restoration Priorities for Lac Bay, Bonaire
Keywords: Larval supply, Habitat Requirements, Recruitment, Lobatus gigas, Lac Bay

2010_DCNA_Conch Restoration in Lac, Bonaire- Progress Report July-December 2010
Keywords: Conch restoration, Lac Bay, management, STINAPA

2000_Nagelkerken et al_Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique
Keywords: fish, nursery grounds, bays, mangrove swamps, sea grasses, reefs, ontogenetic shifts, Caribbean Sea

Saliñas (Saline Ponds)

Ramsar-Slagbaai-en-gotomeer

Bonaire has saliñas, or saline ponds, scattered throughout the island. Saliñas are important habitats for birds such as flamingos, terns and herons, crustaceans, molluscs and a variety of other fauna. They provide an important intermediary rainwater catchment area that helps reduce sediment runoff onto adjacent reefs.

Click here to immediately go to the Bird Monitoring & Research folder

2015_Verweij et al_Indicators on the status and trends of ecosystems in the Dutch Caribbean: Indicators, monitoring and assessment methods and capacity estimates
Keywords: Caribbean Netherlands, monitoring, nature, biodiversity, ecosystems, species, treaties

2013_de Zwart_Follow-up study on the chemical status of Lake Goto, Bonaire
Keywords: PAH, PFC, Saliñas, ecological damage, BOPEC Fire

2012_Smith_Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
Keywords: Flora, Fauna, Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, Reptiles, Birds, Bats, Fresh water species, Trees, Mangroves, Cacti, STINAPA

2012_van Buurt and Debrot_Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Exotic species, Species, Terrestrial, Freshwater

2010_Debrot & Bugter_ Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands; Assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures
Keywords: Caribbean, Climate change adaptation, Biodiversity risk, Ecosystem services

2010_Physico-Chemical Indicators- Monitoring for Water Quality in the Saliñas of Northwest Bonaire, N.A
Keywords: Keywords: Water quality, Saliñas, Vegetation types, Fauna, STINAPA

2008_Hulsman_Effect of introduced species and habitat alteration on the occurrence and distribution of euryhaline fishes in fresh- and brackish-water habitats on Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (South Caribbean)
Keywords: fish assemblages, semi-arid islands, intermittent rivers, aquatic refugia, ecological integrity

2005_Freitas et al_Landscape Ecological Vegetation Map of the Island of Bonaire (Southern Caribbean)
Keywords: Vegetation types, Habitats, Terrestrial, climate, geology, soil types, saliñas, anthropogenic effects

 

 

Water Quality & Marine Debris

clean up
Coastal Clean Up

STINAPA and the local government work together with other researchers to monitor water quality and marine debris accumulation. These studies guide management strategies that improve water quality, such as the development of a sewage treatment plant and public marine debris control activities.

 

2014_Debrot et al_Deepwater marine litter densities and composition from submersible video-transects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean
Keywords: Caribbean, Seafloor, Marine, Deep-water, Debris, Pollution

2014_Slijkerman et al_A baseline water quality assessment of the coastal reefs of Bonaire, Southern Caribbean
Keywords: Tropical marine ecosystems, Caribbean, Nutrients, Eutrophication, Treatment plant, Gadget timed out while loading

2013_Debrot et al_Marine debris in mangroves and on the seabed: Largely-neglected litter problems
Keywords: Marine debris, Lac Bay, Mangroves, STINAPA

2013_Debrot et al_A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean
Keywords: Tropical, Caribbean, Marine, Beach, Debris, Pollution

2013_Slijkerman et al_Water quality of the coastal zone of Bonaire Results field monitoring 2011-2013
Keywords: Water quality, coastal urbanization, sewage treatment, eutrophication, nutrients, bacteria, environmentally safe thresholds

2013_de Zwart_Follow-up study on the chemical status of Lake Goto, Bonaire
Keywords: PAH, PFC, Saliñas, ecological damage, BOPEC Fire

2012_Slijkerman et al_Water quality monitoring Bonaire: Identification of indicators, methods and locations
Keywords: Water quality, coastal urbanization, sewage treatment, indicators, nutrient concentrations, stable isotope d15N, chlorophyll a, bacteria, enterococci

2012_Slijkerman et al_Water quality monitoring Bonaire Results monitoring November 2011 and recommendations for future research
Keywords: Water quality, coastal urbanization, sewage treatment, eutrophication, nutrients, bacteria, environmentally safe thresholds, STINAPA

2012_Debrot et al_Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
Keywords: marine tourism, business operating, recreation, ecological impact, man-made litter, fishing, mangroves, seagrass

2011_Slijkerman et al_Eutrophication status of Lac, Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean Including proposals for measures
Keywords: Coral reefs, Habitats, marine, Lac Bay, eutrophication

2011_IUCN_Coral Reef Resilience Assessment of the Bonaire National Marine Park, Netherlands Antilles
Keywords: Reef resilience, Bonaire, benthic cover, corals, ecological indicators, anthropogenic pressure, marine protected areas, water quality, fishing pressure, coastal development

2010_Physico-Chemical Indicators- Monitoring for Water Quality in the Saliñas of Northwest Bonaire, N.A
Keywords: Keywords: Water quality, Saliñas, Vegetation types, Fauna, STINAPA

2010_Debrot et al_Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire – June 2010
Keywords: Water quality, Recreation, Human impacts, Seagrass, Mangroves, Coral reefs, Habitats, Marine, RAMSAR, Birds

2007_Wieggers_Impact of Increased Nutrient Input on Coral Reefs on Bonaire and Curacao
Keywords: nutrients, fish stocks, coral cover, algae, nitrogen, phytoplankton, STINAPA